Solutions to issues facing people living in urban areas in richer part of the world?

Solutions to issues facing people living in urban areas in richer part of the world?

What you need to know:

I can describe the strategies introduced to ease issues that face people living in urban areas in richer parts of the world with regards to housing, inner city, traffic, CBD and multicultural societies.

I can provide example of strategies.

I can evaluate the success of strategies introduced to ease the problems.

Issue 1: Housing

Key Terms:

Brownfield – Land that has been used before and is going to be cleared and reused. They are normally in the inner city where factories once were.

Greenfield – Land that has not been build on before. This in usually on the rural-urban fringe or in a rural (countryside) area.

Solution:

The government has a plan to build 240,000 new homes every year to meet housing shortages and to ensure that house prices do not increase too much! 60% of houses will be built on brownfield sites but some will have to be build on greenfield sites.

Brownfield sites:

Advantages

Disadvantages

As they are normally in the inner city, they are near facilities, such as shops. Sites can be contaminated
Water and electric services are often nearby It can cost a lot of money to clear sites.
Councils usually grant planning permission as they want sites to be regenerated. There may be not much land available as they are near to the CBD

Greenfield sites:

Advantages

Disadvantages

They are cheap to prepare for building as land in not contaminated. It costs a lot of money to provide utilities.
Living in the countryside may appeal to families as they want adequate green space. It may reduce land which was once used for recreational purposes
There may be a lot of land available. There may be no roads nearby and this costs a lot of money to build.

Issue 2: The Inner City

Key Terms:

Regeneration – Improving an area

Solution 1: Urban Development Corporations

Aim: To regenerate an area by bringing land and buildings into effective use. Create an attractive environment and ensure housing and social facilities are available.

Case Study: The London Docklands Development Corporation

The London Docklands Development Corporation ran for 17 years and made the following achievements:

2,700 businesses trading.

85,000 people working in the London Docklands.

24,046 homes built.

£1.86 billion public sector investment.

The Docklands Light Railway which connects commuters to Canary Warf.

Solution 2: City Challenge

Aim: Introduced in the 1990’s, this scheme allowed local authorities to design a scheme and receive a bid for funding. Councils had to compete against each other to win bids. The schemes had to include the local community and private companies.

Case Study: West End City Challenge, Newcastle

The West End City Challenge began in 1991 and achieved:

£37.5 million of public sector investment

Improvements in the physical appearance of the West End.

Local shops built.

Crime management measures introduced.

Solution 3: Sustainable Communities 

Aim: Introduced in 2003, the scheme enabled people to have a good quality of life including housing of an appropriate standard which has access to jobs, health care and education facilities.

Case Study: New Islington, Manchester

66 new houses

Over 1,000 apartments

A primary school

2 health centres

Shops, restaurants, cafes and bars.

Issue 3: Traffic

To reduces pressures caused by traffic, Park and Ride Schemes and Congestion charges have been introduces in certain cities across the UK.

Strategy 1: Park and Ride, York

The Park and Ride scheme was introduced in York in 1990 and consists of 6 routes. It is the largest Park and Ride scheme in the United Kingdom and offers 4,970 car spaces.

Advantages of the Park and Ride Scheme:

Less congestion in CBD

Less air and noise pollution in CBD’s.

Commuters can save money on petrol costs and inner city/CBD car parking costs.

Advantages of the Park and Ride Scheme:

Car Parks are often built on green field sites.

The scheme may lead to an increase of urban sprawl.

Strategy 2: Congestion Charge, London 

The congestion Charge, London was introduced in 2003. Currently, commuters are charged £11.50 per day to travel in London between 07.00 and 18.00.

Advantages:

Less congestion in CBD

Less air and noise pollution in CBD’s.

Makes CBD’s and the inner city more attractive for pedestrians.

Reduces journey time for commuters if scheme works effectively.

Disadvantages:

Congestion charge may encourage shoppers to use out of town shopping centres.

It is expensive for people who use it daily.

Issue 4: Multicultural Mix

To reduce segregation, many councils have tried to implement strategies.

Case Study: Leeds

In Leeds, there has been an effort to:

Provide facilities and offer events in communities which encourage separate ethnic groups to mix together, e.g. Leeds West Indian Carnival

Improve literacy for in areas where English is an additional language.

Improve educational provision and opportunities for children in deprived areas.

Increase access to employment and training opportunities for adults.

Issue 5: The CBD

To re-vitalize CBD’s, councils have regenerated areas to enhance their image.

Case Study: Newcastle City Centre (2013-present)

Private sector investment of £20 million to improve Central Station – resulting in the creation of 173 additional jobs.

The Hampton, Hilton opening – up-market hotel chain.

Larger pedestrainised Zones

Re-development of inner city shopping centre, Eldon Square.

Up-market shops around Monument, including Hugo Boss

Apartments and flats converted above shops